Crime Prevention and Control

Research


Group Violence Reduction Strategy ("Operation Ceasefire")

Braga, A.A., Weisburd, D.L. The Effects of Focused-Deterrence Strategies on Crime: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence (Campbell Collaboration). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.  (Published online September 13, 2011).

Braga, A. A., Hureau, D., Winship, C. Losing Faith? Police, Black Churches, and the Resurgence of Youth Violence in Boston. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6 (1) (Fall 2008)

Braga, A. A. Pulling Levers: Focused Deterrence Strategies and the Prevention of Gun Homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 36 (2008)

Braga, A. A., McDevitt, J., Pierce, G. L. Understanding and Preventing Gang Violence: Problem Analysis and Response Development in Lowell, Massachusetts. Police Quarterly. Vol. 9 (1) (2006)

Braga, A. A., Pierce G.L. Disrupting Illegal Firearms Markets in Boston: The Effects of Operation Ceasefire on the Supply of New Handguns to Criminals. Criminology & Public Policy (4) (November 2005)

Braga, A A., Winship, C.
Creating an Effective Foundation to Prevent Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from Boston in the 1990s. Rappaport Institute Policy Brief PB-2005-5 (September 2005)

Braga, A. A., Kennedy, D.M. Reducing Gang Violence in Boston. In Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research. Eds. Reed, W.L. and Decker, S.H. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice (July 2002)

Braga, A.A., Kennedy, D.M. The Illicit Acquisition of Firearms by Youth and Juveniles. Journal of Criminal Justice 29 (5) (2001)

Braga, A A., Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M., Waring, E.J. Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project’s Operation Ceasefire. National Institute of Justice Research Report (September 2001)

Braga, A. A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J., Piehl, A.M. Problem-Oriented Policing, Deterrence, and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of Boston's Operation Ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38 (3) (August 2001)

Braga, A.A., Kennedy, D.M. Gun Shows and the Illegal Diversion of Firearms. The Georgetown Public Policy Review 6 (1) (Fall 2000)

Braga, A. A., Piehl, A.M., Kennedy D.M. Youth Homicide in Boston: An Assessment of Supplementary Homicide Report Data. Homicide Studies 3 (4) (November 1999)

Bullock, K., Tilley, N. Shootings, Gangs, and Violent Incidents in Manchester: Developing a Crime Reduction Strategy. Crime Reduction Research Paper Series 13. London: Home Office (2002)

Bynum, T.S., McCluskey, J.D. Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI): Detroit, Michigan. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (November 2007)

Center for Social Justice. Dying to Belong: An In-depth Review of Street Gangs in Britain. Policy Report by the Gangs Working Group, (February 2009)

Children’s Defense Fund. Protect Children Not Guns. (2006)

Dalton, E. Lessons in Preventing Homicide. Project Safe Neighborhoods Report.  School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University (December 2003)

Decker, S.H.; Curry, D.; Catalano, S.; Watkins, A.; Green, L. Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) in St. Louis. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (June 2005)

Easterling, D. et al. Evaluation of SACSI in Winston-Salem: Engaging the Community in a Strategic Analysis of Youth Violence. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (July 2002)

Engel, R.S., Corsaro, N., Skubak Tillyer, M.  Evaluation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV). University of Cincinnati Policing Institute (2010, October) 

Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Dunham, J.R., Hall, D., Ozer, M., Henson, B., Godsey, T. (2009). Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): Year 2 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute

Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Eck, J., Dunham, J. Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV):  Year 1 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute (April 2008)

Fagan, J., Papachristos, A.V, Wallace, D., Meares, T. Desistance and Legitimacy:  Effect Heterogeneity in a Field Experiment with High-Risk Offenders. Presented at the American Society of Criminology annual meeting in St. Louis (November 2008)

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Caught in the Crossfire: Arresting Gang Violence by Investing in Kids (2004)

Hartstone, E.C..Richetelli, D.M. Final Assessment of the Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in New Haven (CT) National Criminal Justice Reference Service (January 2003)

Kapsch, S.J., Louis, L. , Oleson, K. The Dynamics of Deterrence: Youth Gun Violence in Portland (YLS/CMI) National Criminal Justice Reference Service (January 2004)

Kennedy, D.M. Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanctions. NY: Routledge (2008)

Kennedy, D. M. Making Communities Safer: Youth Violence and Gang Interventions that Work. Prepared Testimony Before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security (February 15th, 2007)

Kennedy, D.M. Old Wine in New Bottles: Policing and the Lessons of Pulling Levers. In Weisburd, David and Anthony A. Braga eds. Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2006)

Kennedy, D.M. Rethinking Law Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Domestic Violence. Networks Vol. 19 (2-3). National Center for Victims of Crime (2004)

Kennedy, D. M. "A Tale of One City: Reflections on the Boston Gun Project." In Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence, ed. Gary S. Katzmann. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press (2002)

Kennedy, D.M. Research for Problem Solving and the New Collaborations. In Viewing Crime and Justice from a Collaborative Perspective: Plenary Papers of the 1998 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation (1999)

Kennedy, D. M., Braga A.A. Homicide in Minneapolis: Research for Problem Solving. Homicide Studies 2 (3) (August 1998)

Kennedy, D.M.  Pulling Levers: Getting Deterrence Right. National Institute of Justice Journal (July 1998)

Kennedy, D. M. Pulling Levers: Chronic Offenders, High-Crime Settings, and a Theory of Prevention. Valparaiso University Law Review 31 (2) (Spring 1997)

Kennedy, D. M., Braga, A.A., Piehl, A.M. "The (Un)Known Universe: Mapping Gangs and Gang Violence in Boston." In Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention, ed. David L. Weisburd and J. Thomas McEwen. New York: Criminal Justice Press (1997)

Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M, Braga, A.A. Gun Buy-Backs: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go? In Under Fire: Gun Buy-Backs, Exchanges, and Amnesty Programs, ed. Martha R. Plotkin. Washington, DC:Police Executive Research Forum (1996)

Kennedy, D.M. Neighborhood Revitalization: Lessons from Savannah and Baltimore. National Institute of Justice Journal, No. 231 (August 1996)

Kennedy, D. M., Piehl, A.M., Braga, A.A. Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth Offenders, and a Use-Reduction Strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems 59 (1) (Winter 1996)

Kennedy, D.M., Moore, M.H. Underwriting the Risky Investment in Community Policing: What Social Science Should be Doing to Evaluate Community Policing. Justice System Journal 17 (3) (1995). Reprinted in Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings(4th ed.), ed. Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert, Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press (2001).

Kennedy, D.M. Violence and the Cities: A New National Strategy. Mayors' Leadership Caucus on Crime and Neighborhood Revitalization. Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (November 1993)

Kennedy, D.M. Guns and Youth: Disrupting the Market. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology (October 1993)

Kennedy, D.M. The Strategic Management of Police Resources. Perspectives on Policing 14 (January 1993).

Klofas, J.M., Delaney C., Smith, T. Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) in Rochester, NY National Criminal Justice Reference Service (November 2007)

McGarrell, E. Strategic Problem Solving and Project Safe Neighborhoods. PSN Working Paper. School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University (2005)

McGarrell, E., Chermak, S. Strategic Approaches to Reducing Firearms Violence: Final Report on the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (October 2003)

McGarrell, E.F., Chermak, S., Wilson, J.M., Corsaro, N. Reducing Homicide through a "Lever-Pulling" Strategy. Justice Quarterly 23, 2 (June 2006)

Meares, T., Papachristos, A.V., Fagan, J. Homicide and Gun Violence in Chicago: Evaluation and Summary of the Project Safe Neighborhoods Program (2009). Project Safe Neighborhoods Research Brief.

National Institute of Justice. Paving the Way for Project Safe Neighborhoods: SACSI in 10 U.S. Cities. Research Report (April 2008)

National Institute of Justice. Reducing Gun Violence: Community Problem Solving in Atlanta. (June 2006)

National Institute of Justice. Reducing Gun Violence: Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles. (February 2005)

Papachristos, A.V., Braga, A.A., Hureau, D.M. (2011). Six Degrees of Violent Victimization: Social Networks and the Risk of Gunshot Injury. Manuscript submitted for publication.  

Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T., Fagan, J. Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. Vol 4. (2), 223-272. (2007)

Piehl, A.M., Cooper, S.J., Braga, A.A., Kennedy, D.M. Testing for Structural Breaks in the Evaluation of Programs. The Review of Economics and Statistics 85 (3) (August 2003)  

Piehl, A.M., Kennedy, D.M., Braga, A.A. Problem Solving and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of the Boston Gun Project. American Law and Economics Review 2 (1) (Spring 2000)

Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., Baumer, E. (2005). Did Ceasefire, Compstat, and Exile Reduce Homicide? Criminology & Public Policy. Vol.4 (3)

Sparrow, M.K., Moore, M.H., Kennedy, D.M. Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. New York: Basic Books (1990)

Spector, A., Garcia, V., Engle, R.S. Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) Best Practice Guide (2008)

Steele, P. D., Broidy, L. The Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in Albuquerque: Project Activities and Research Results National Criminal Justice Research Services (November 2007)

Tita, G., Riley, K.J., Ridgeway, G., Grammich, C., Abrahamse, A.F.  Reducing Gun Violence: Results From An Intervention In East Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2010.

Wakeling, S. Ending Gang Homicide: Deterrence Can Work. Perspectives on Violent Prevention. California Attorney General’s Office/California Health and Human Services Agency, Nr. 1 (February 2003)

 

Drug Market Intervention (DMI / "The High Point Model")  

Braga, A.A., Weisburd, D.L. The Effects of Focused-Deterrence Strategies on Crime: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence (Campbell Collaboration). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. (Published online September 13, 2011).

Corsaro, N., Brunson, R.K., McGarrell, E.F. (2009). Problem-Oriented Policing and Open-Air Drug Markets: Examining the Rockford Pulling Levers Deterrence Strategy. Crime & Delinquency 

Corsaro, N., McGarrell, E. F. (2009). An Evaluation of the Nashville Drug Market Initiative (DMI) Pulling Levers Strategy. Drug Market Intervention Working Paper. School of Criminal Justice Michigan State University. Manuscript submitted for publication. NEW!

Frabutt, J. M., Hefner, M. K., Harvey, L. K., Di Luca, K. L., & Shelton, T. L. (in press). Key Community Stakeholders in a Police-Community Partnership to Eliminate Street-Drug Markets: Roles, Engagement, and Assessment of the Strategy. Crime, Punishment, and the Law: An International Journal.

Frabutt, J. M., Hefner, M. K., Di Luca, K. L., Shelton, T. L., & Harvey, L.K. (2010). A Street-Drug Elimination Initiative: The Law Enforcement Perspective. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33 (3), 452-472.

Frabutt, J.M., Gathings, M.J., Hunt, E.D., & Loggins, T.J. (July 2004) High Point West End Initiative: Project Description, Log, And Preliminary Impact Analysis. Center for Youth, Family, and Community Partnerships, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Hipple, N.K., Corsaro, N., McGarrell, E. F (2010). The High Point Drug Market Initiative: A Process and Impact Assessment. East Lansing, MA: Michigan State University

Hipple, N. K., McGarrell, E. F. et al (2009). Drug Market Intervention Implementation Guide and Lessons Learned. Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Kennedy, D.(2009, March). Drugs, Race and Common Ground: Reflections on the High Point Intervention. National Institute of Justice Journal, No. 262.

Kennedy, D.M, Wong, S.L., (2009).
The High Point Drug Market Intervention Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services.

Kennedy, D.M. (2008) Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanctions. NY: Routledge

McGarrell, E. F., Corsaro, N., Brunson, R..K. (2010). The Drug Market Intervention Approach to Overt Drug Markets. VARSTVOSLOVJE, Journal of Criminal Justice and Security. Year 12 No. 4. pp. 397-407

Meares, T. (2009). The Legitimacy of Police Among Young African-American Men Marquette Law Review, 92 (4) 651-666


Domestic Violence  

Kennedy, D.M. (2008) Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanctions. NY: Routledge

Kennedy, D.M. Controlling Domestic Violence Offenders. Paper prepared for the Hewlett-Family Violence Prevention Fund (April 2002)

 

 

CENTER SPOTLIGHTS

Campbell Review Attests to Efficacy of Center's Strategies
A Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review, the gold standard in evaluating social science interventions, found "strong empirical evidence” for the effectiveness of the Center's crime prevention strategies. The Effects of “Pulling Levers” Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime  (Braga & Weisburd, 2011) confirms what research and field experience have long suggested:  a strategy that combines deterrence with elements that encourage offenders away from crime, strengthens a community’s collective efficacy, and enhances police legitimacy is the most effective approach to addressing serious violent crime and overt drug markets.



Don't Shoot
Read an excerpt from Center Director David Kennedy's new book or click on the cover image below for further information. Highlights from a reading during his national book tour, including a conversation with John Seabrook from The New Yorker, can be viewed here.     

David Kennedy, in this interview with Boston Public Radio, sets out what it takes to reduce the number of violent deaths and the high levels of incarceration rates that beset America's most troubled communities.


Fighting Back: Violence in Our Cities 
As one of the panelists of a multimedia event in New Haven, CT, Center Director David Kennedy discusses how to rebuild trust between the community and police and stem the tide of murders in the city.  


Photo: Thomas McMillan/New Haven Independent 
 



Thinking Outside the Cell
In this interview with CUNY TV's Criminal Justice Matters, Center Director David Kennedy explains why the strategies developed by the Center can reduce both serious violent crime and the problem of mass incarceration.

  

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Center for Crime Prevention and Control
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