Steven D. Penrod

Steven D. Penrod

Distinguished Professor
Phone number: 
Room number: 
10.65.03 NB


1979   PhD   Social Psychology, Harvard University
1974   JD      Harvard University
1969   BA      Yale College, Poli. Sci,


Steven D. Penrod joined the John Jay faculty as Distinguished Professor of Psychology in 2001. He earned his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1974 and his Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1979. He was previously on the faculties of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the University of Minnesota Law School and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He has over 130 publications; is a co-author of books on juries, on eyewitnesses, introductory psychology and social psychology; and a co-editor of volumes on research methods in forensic psychology and comparative psychology and law. Professor Penrod's research and writing have focused on decision-making in legal contexts. He has written about the effects of jury size and decision rules on jury decision-making, death penalty decision-making, juror's use of probabilistic and hearsay evidence, comprehension of legal instructions, and the impact of extra-legal influences such as pretrial publicity, joinder of charges, the effects of cameras in the courtroom, the and the effects of juror questioning of witnesses on jury performance. His research and writing about eyewitness evidence has encompassed factors that reduce eyewitness reliability, interview and lineup procedures that may enhance eyewitness performance, child witnesses, jury assessments of eyewitness evidence, the relationship between eyewitness confidence and eyewitness accuracy and the effects of eyewitness expert testimony on jury decision-making.


National Science Foundation, Reducing Eyewitness Identification Errors: Procedural Strategies, (Award#:0319801,:$298,398, 7/15/03-1/15/06).
National Science Foundation, Risk Management and Juries: How Jurors React to Cost-Benefit Analyses. ($260,000, 2/02-2/04). With Kevin O'Neil. National Science Foundation, Meta-Analysis of Facial Identification Research: A Reappraisal ($140,669, 5/01-4/03). With Brian Bornstein.
National Science Foundation, A Continuing Empirical Analysis of the Admissibility of Expert Testimony: Investigating the Effects of Kumho Tire v. Carmichael. ($102,307, 01/15/00 - 09/15/02). CUNY Research Foundation, Sequential vs. Serial Lineup Identification Procedures. ($4800, 03/01/2002-06/30/2003)
National Science Foundation, How Expert Are Factfinders? Evaluating the Reliability of Interviews in Child Sexual Abuse Cases ($77,309,  09/01/99 - 05/31/01). With Nancy Walker.
National Institute of Mental Health, Training Grant in Mental Health Policy and Research ($620,000, 7/1/99-6/30/01).
National Science Foundation, The Death Equation: Decisionmaking in Death Penalty Cases ($172,021, Aug 1998-Feb 2001).
National Science Foundation, A Scientific Examination of the Admissibility of Scientific Expert Testimony Under Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals. ($78,000, Sept 1997-March 1999).
Hewlett Foundation, Center for Conflict and Change, ($125,000, July 1994-June 1996).
National Science Foundation, Meta-Analysis of Jury Decisionmaking Studies, ($65,456, August 1993-March 1996).
Hewlett Foundation, Center for Conflict and Change, ($200,000, November 1991-October 1993).
National Science Foundation (with Eugene Borgida), Cameras inthe Courtroom: A Field Experiment ($150,000, July 1990-June 1992).
State Justice Institute (with American Judicature Society and Larry Heuer), Assessing the Impact of Juror Notetaking and Question- asking on Juror Performance:  A National Experiment ($111,201, November 1988-May 1990).
National Science Foundation (with Daniel Linz), Pretrial Mass Media  Exposure and Jury Decisionmaking ($135,000, July 1988-March 1991).
National Institute of Mental Health (with Daniel Linz and Edward Donnerstein), Sexual Violence in the Media: Mental Health Implications ($350,824, July 1986-July 1989).
National Science Foundation, Assessing and Calibrating Juror Sensitivity to Eyewitness Evidence ($131,290, Sept 1984-Feb 1988)
National Institute of Justice, Improving Eyewitness Performance ($119,767, March 1984-September 1986).
National Science Foundation (with Edward Donnerstein). Effects of Long-term Exposure to Sexually Violent Images. ($202,503, June 1983-May 1986).
National Institute of Justice, Guidelines for Joinder in Criminal Cases ($117,000, September 1981-January 1984).
National Institute of Health, Social Cognition and Patient-Physician Communication ($98,003, January 1981-July 1983).
National Science Foundation (Joint Funding from Law & Social Sciences & Social and Developmental) Empirically Based Models of Juror and Jury Decision Making. ($76,549, January 1981-December 1983).
National Institute of Justice, 1981-1982,  (with Dan Coates). The Implications of Social Science Research for Criminal Trial Advocacy ($203,045, January 1981-July 1983).
National Institute of Justice, Validation of a Measure of Assaultive Risk. Principal Investigator/Advisor on Dissertation Research by Marlowe Embree. ($10,500, 1981-1982).
National Science Foundation, Evidence in Civil Commitment Cases. Faculty Advisor on Student Originated Study with Terri Finesmith. ($5,828, Summer 1981).
University of Nebraska Visiting Scholar Grant (John Michon). 1996. $795.
University of Minnesota Graduate School, 1991-1992, External Validity of Jury Research, ($9,056).
University of Minnesota Graduate School, 1990-1991, Juror Decisions in Joined Trials, ($10,000).
University of Minnesota Graduate School, 1989-1990, Legal Decisionmaking, ($10,000).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1986-1987, Legal Decisionmaking ($2,730).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1984-1985, Modeling Social Influence Processes. ($7,959).
University of Wisconsin Bio-Medical Research Fund, 1984-1985, Physiological Desensitization from Exposure to Media Violence. ($5,000).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1983-1984, Effects of Exposure to Sexually Violent Images. ($2,600).
University of Wisconsin Bio-Medical Research Fund, 1983-1984, An Inoculation Procedure for Exposure to Violent Media Portrayals. ($2,600).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1982-1983, Eyewitness Reliability: Closing the Generalization Gap. ($5,922).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1981-1982, Script- Based Inferencing and Decision Making. ($10,229).
University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund, 1980-1981, Models of Jury Decision Making. ($5,964).
University of Wisconsin Bio-Medical Research Fund, 1980-1981, Social Cognition and Patient-Physician Communication. ($7,300).
University of Wisconsin Bio-Medical Research Fund, 1979-1980, Cognitive Models of Symptoms and Diseases. ($5,000).
Wisconsin Graduate Research Committee, General Research Support, 1979-1980.
National Science Foundation (Law & Social Sciences) Dissertation Research Award 1979, Evaluation of Traditional and 'Scientific' Jury Selection Methods.  ($5,960).

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