Patricia Zapf

Patricia Zapf

Patricia Zapf
Professor
Phone number: 
212.237.8775
Website URL: 
Room number: 
2112N

Education

1999   PhD,     Simon Fraser University
1995   MA,       Simon Fraser University
1993   BA,       University of Alberta

 

Bio

Patricia A. Zapf obtained her PhD in Clinical Forensic psychology from Simon Fraser University in Canada and currently holds the position of Professor in the Department of Psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, The City University of New York. She is the Editor of the American Psychology-Law Society book series; Associate Editor of Law and Human Behavior; and is on the Editorial Boards of 5 journals in psychology and law. Dr. Zapf is on the Board of Directors for the International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services and currently serves as President for the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS; Division 41, APA). She has published 8 books and manuals and over 85 articles and chapters, mainly on the assessment and conceptualization of criminal competencies. Dr. Zapf was appointed Fellow of the American Psychological Association and Distinguished Member of the American Psychology-Law Society in 2006 for outstanding contributions to the field of law and psychology for her work in competency evaluation. In addition to her research, she serves as consultant to various criminal justice and policy organizations and has a private practice in forensic assessment. She has conducted over 2500 forensic evaluations in both the United States and Canada and has served as an expert witness in a number of cases, including the competency hearing of Jose Padilla. Dr. Zapf is the author of Best Practices in Forensic Mental Health Assessment: Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial; editor of Forensic Assessments in Criminal and Civil Law: A Handbook for Lawyers; and Editor-in-Chief of the APA Handbook of Forensic Psychology.  She served on National Judicial College’s Mental Competency—Best Practices Model panel of experts and travels throughout the United States and Internationally to train legal and mental health professionals on best practices in forensic evaluation.

Publications

Books and Manuals

1. Pirelli, G., Beattey, R., & Zapf, P. A. (under contract). Ethical practice of forensic psychology: A casebook. NY: Oxford.

2. Cutler, B., & Zapf, P. A. (2014). APA Handbook of forensic psychology. Washington, DC: APA.

3. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Hart, S. D., & Connelly, D. (2014). Forensic psychology and the Canadian legal systemMississauga, ON: Wiley.

4. Roesch, R. & Zapf, P. A. (2013). Forensic assessments in criminal and civil law: A handbook for lawyers. NY: Oxford.

5. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., & Hart, S. D. (2010). Forensic psychology and law. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

6. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2009). Best practices in forensic mental health assessment: Evaluation of competence to stand trial. New York, NY: Oxford.

7. Zapf, P. A. (2006). Suicide Assessment Manual for Inmates (SAMI). Burnaby, BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

  • • Translated into Norwegian by Leif Waag.
  • • Translated into Italian by Krzysztof Szadejko & Silvio Ciappi

 

8. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., & Eaves, D. (2006). Fitness Interview Test: A structured interview for assessing competency to stand trial. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.

9. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Eaves, D., & Webster, C.D. (1998). The Fitness Interview Test (Revised edition). Burnaby, BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

  • • Translated into French by Anne Croker, University of Montreal
  • • Translated into Spanish by Jorge Folino, University of LaPlata, Argentina. Spanish version published as: Folino, J. O., Castillo, J. L., & Roesch, R. (2003). Escala de evaluacion de capacidad para actuar en proceso penal eecapapp. LaPlata, Argentina: Editorial Interfase Forense 
  • Translated into German
  • Translated into Italian by Silvio Ciappi

 

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

*students are underlined

1. Pirelli, G., Zapf, P. A., & Gottdiener, W. H. (2011). Competency to stand trial research: Guidelines and future directions. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 22, 340-370.

2. Ryba, N. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2011). The influence of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive abilities on competencerelated abilities. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 29-40.

3. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2011). Future directions in the restoration of competence to stand trial. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 43-47.

4. Pirelli, G., Gottdiener, W. H., & Zapf, P. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of comparative competency to stand trial research. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 1-53.

5. Rosenfeld, B., Green. D., Pivovarova, E., Dole, T., & Zapf, P. A. (2010). What to do with contradictory data?Approaches to the integration of multiple malingering measures. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 963-73.

6. Pivovarova, E., Rosenfeld, R., Dole, T., Green, D., & Zapf, P. (2009). Are measures of cognitive effort and motivation useful in differentiating feigned from genuine psychiatric symptoms? International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 8, 271-278.

7. Zapf, P. A. (2009). Elucidating the contours of competency for execution: The implications of Ford and Panetti for the assessment of CFE. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 37, 269-307.

8. Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). Psychiatric patients’ comprehension of Miranda rights. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 390-405.

9. Murrie, D.C., Boccaccini, M.T., Zapf, P.A., Warren, J.I., & Henderson, C.E. (2008). Clinician variation in findings of competence to stand trial. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 14, 177-193.

10. Pirelli, G., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). An investigation of psychologists’ practices and attitudes toward participation in capital evaluations. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 8, 39-66.

11. Green, D., Rosenfeld, B., Dole, T., Pivarova, E., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). Validation of an abbreviated version of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms across outpatient psychiatric and community settings. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 177-186.

12. Jacobs, M. S., Ryba, N. L., & Zapf. P. A. (2008). Competence-related abilities and psychiatric symptoms: An analysis of the underlying structure and correlates of the MacCAT-CA and the BPRS. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 64-77.

13. Viljoen, J. L., Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2007). Adjudicative competence and comprehension of Miranda rights in adolescent defendants: A comparison of legal standards. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 25, 1-19.

14. Brannen, D. N., Salekin, R. T., Zapf, P. A., Salekin, K. L., Kubak, F. A., & DeCoster, J. (2006). Transfer to adult courts: A national study of how juvenile court judges weigh pertinent Kent criteria? Psychology, Public, Policy, andLaw, 12, 332-355.

15. Kahn, R., Zapf, P. A., & Cooper, V. G. (2006). Readability of Miranda warnings and waivers: Implications for evaluating Miranda comprehension. Law and Psychology Review, 30, 119-142.

16. Ackerson, K. S., Brodsky, S. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2005). Judges’ and psychologists’ assessments of legal and clinical factors in competence for execution. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 164-193.

17. Brodsky, S. L. Zapf, P. A., & Boccaccini, M. T. (2005). Competency for execution assessments: Ethical continuities and professional tasks. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 5, 65-74.

18. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2005). An investigation of the construct of competence: A comparison of the FIT, the MacCAT-CA, and the MacCAT-T. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 229-252. Reprinted in (2007) Roesch, R., & McLachlan, K. (Eds.) Clinical forensic psychology and law. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate.

19. Zapf, P. A., Skeem, J. L., & Golding, S. L. (2005). Factor structure and validity of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool—Criminal Adjudication. Psychological Assessment, 17, 433-445.

20. Cooper, V. G., McLearen, A. M., & Zapf, P. A. (2004). Dispositional decisions with the mentally ill: Police perceptions and characteristics. Police Quarterly, 7, 295-310.

21. Cox, M. L. & Zapf, P. A. (2004). An investigation of discrepancies between mental health professionals and the courts in decisions about competency. Law and Psychology Review, 28, 109-132.

22. Zapf, P. A., Hubbard, K. L., Cooper, V. G., Wheeles, M. C., & Ronan, K. A. (2004). Have the courts abdicated their responsibility for determination of competency to stand trial to clinicians? Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 4, 27-44.

23. Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Predictor variables in competency to stand trial decisions. Law and Human

Behavior, 27, 423-436.

24. Holloway, K. S., Brodsky, S. L., Boccaccini, M. T., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Irrational and rational understandings of death: Issues of malingering and disordered thinking about death. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 21, 65-77.

25. Hubbard, K. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). The role of demographic, criminal, and psychiatric variables in examiners’ predictions of restorability to competency to stand trial. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 2, 145-155.

26. Hubbard, K. L., Zapf, P. A., & Ronan, K. A. (2003). Competency restoration: An examination of the differences between defendants predicted restorable and not restorable to competency. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 127-139.

27. Ryba, N. L., Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Juvenile competence to stand trial evaluations: A survey of current practices and test usage among psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 499-507.

28. Ryba, N. L., Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Assessment of maturity in juvenile competency to stand trial evaluations: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 3, 23-45.

29. Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). The role of Canadian psychologists in conducting fitness and criminal responsibility evaluations. Canadian Psychology, 44, 369-381.

30. Viljoen, J. L., Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2003). Diagnosis, current psychiatric symptoms, and the ability to stand trial. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 3, 23-37.

31. Zapf, P. A., Boccaccini, M. T., & Brodsky, S. L. (2003). Assessment of competency for execution: Professional guidelines and an evaluation checklist. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 103-120.

32. Zapf, P. A., & Viljoen, J. L. (2003). Issues and considerations regarding the use of assessment instruments in the evaluation of competency to stand trial. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 351-367.

33. Boccaccini, M. T., Zapf, P. A., & Brodsky, S. (2002). Psychiatric patients’ competency to collude with hospital police in “sting” operations: A case report and practice implications. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 93-99.

34. Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). Interrater reliability of the Fitness Interview Test across four professional groups. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 945-952.

35. Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). An examination of the relationship between competency to stand trial, competency to waive interrogation rights, and psychopathology. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 481-506.

36. Viljoen, J. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). Fitness to stand trial evaluations: A comparison of referred and non-referred defendants. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 127-138.

37. Brodsky, S. L., Zapf, P. A., & Boccaccini, M. (2001). The last competency: An examination of legal, ethical, and professional ambiguities regarding evaluations of competence for execution. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 1, 1-25.

38. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2001). A comparison of the MacCAT-CA and the FIT for making determinations of competency to stand trial. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 24, 81-92.

39. Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Viljoen, J. L. (2001) Assessing fitness to stand trial: The utility of the Fitness Interview Test (revised edition). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 426-432.

40. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2000). Mental competency evaluations: Guidelines for judges and attorneys. Court Review, 37, 28-35.

41. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1998). Fitness to stand trial: Characteristics of fitness remands since the 1992 Criminal Code amendments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 287-293.

42. Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., Hart, S. D., Dempster, R. J., Zapf, P. A., & Whittemore, K. E. (1997). The impact of Canadian criminal code changes on assessments of fitness to stand trial and criminal responsibility. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 509-514Reprinted in (2000) D. Eaves, J. R. P. Ogloff, & R. Roesch (Eds.), Mental disorders and the Criminal Code: Legal background and contemporary perspectives (pp. 139-157). Burnaby, BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

43. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1997). Assessing fitness to stand trial: A comparison of institution-based evaluations and a brief screening interview. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 16, 53-66.

44. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1997). Alternatives to inpatient evaluations of fitness to stand trial. Analise Psicologica, 15, 419-424.

45. Roesch, R., Hart, S. D., & Zapf, P. A. (1996). Conceptualizing and assessing competency to stand trial: Implications and applications of the MacArthur Treatment Competence Model. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 96-113.

46. Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Hart, S. D. (1996). An examination of the relationship of homelessness to mental disorder, criminal behavior, and health care in a pretrial jail population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 435-440.

Book Chapters

1. Zapf, P. A. (in press). Competency for execution. In R. L. Jackson & R. Roesch (Eds.), Learning forensic assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

2. Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., Roesch, R., & Pirelli, G. (2014). Assessing criminal responsibility. In I. B. Weiner & R. K. Otto (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology (4th ed.; pp. 315-351). New York: Wiley.

3. Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Pirelli, G. (2014). Assessing competency to stand trial. In I. B. Weiner & R. K. Otto (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology (4th ed.; pp. 281-314). New York: Wiley.

4. Zapf, P. A., & Pirelli, G. (2013). Research methods with violent offenders. In C. A. Pietz & C. A. Mattson (Eds.), Violent offenders: Understanding and assessment. New York, NY: Oxford.

5. Zapf, P. A., Gagnon, N. C., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2012). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (7th ed., pp. 284-322). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

6. Zapf, P. A., & Grisso, T. (2012). Use and misuse of forensic assessment instruments. In D. Faust (Ed.), Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony (6th ed.; pp. 488-508). New York, NY: Oxford.

7. Zapf, P. A., & Pirelli, G. (2012). Forensic report writing and testimony in capacity evaluations. In G. J. Demakis (Ed.), Civil capacities in clinical neuropsychology: Research findings and practical applications (pp. 242-263). New York, NY: Oxford.

8. Zapf, P. A., Green, D., & Rosenfeld, B. (2011). Competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility research. In B. Rosenfeld & S. D. Penrod (Eds.), Research methods in forensic psychology (pp. 156-173). New York: Wiley.

9. Poythress, N. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2009). Controversies in evaluating competency to stand trial. In J. L. Skeem, K. S. Douglas, & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Psychological science in the courtroom: Consensus and controversy (pp. 309-329). New York, NY: Guilford.

10. Zapf, P. A., Zottoli, T., & Pirelli, G. (2009). Insanity in the courtroom: Issues of criminal responsibility and competency to stand trial. In J. D. Lieberman & D. A. Krauss (Eds.), Psychology in the courtroom, Vol. II (pp. 79-101). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

11. Zapf, P. A., Gagnon, N. C., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2009). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (6th ed., pp. 247-281). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

12. Zapf, P. A. (2008). Competency for execution. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Learning forensic assessment (pp. 239-261). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

13. McLearen, A. M., & Zapf, P. A. (2007). The death penalty: A brief review of historical roots and current practices relevant to the mental health practitioner (pp. 295-319). In R. K. Ax & T. J. Fagan (Eds.), Corrections, mental health, and social policy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

14. Litwack, T., Zapf, P. A., Groscup, J. L., & Hart, S. D. (2006). Violence risk assessment: Research, legal, and clinical considerations. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 487-533). New York: Wiley.

15. Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., & Roesch, R. (2006). Criminal responsibility and the insanity defense. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 332-363). New York: Wiley.

16. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2006). Competency to stand trial: A guide for evaluators. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 305-331). New York: Wiley.

17. Zapf, P. A., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2004). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (5th ed., pp. 260-291). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

18. Zapf, P. A., Viljoen, J. L., Whittemore, K. E., Poythress, N. G., & Roesch, R. (2002). Competency: Past, present, and future. In J. R. P. Ogloff (ed.), Taking psychology and law into the twenty first century (pp. 171-198). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

19. Nicholls, T. L., Hemphill, J. F., Boer, D. P., Kropp, P. R., & Zapf, P. A. (2001). The assessment and treatment of offenders and inmates: Specific populations. In R. Schuller & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), An introduction to law and psychology: Canadian perspectives (pp. 248-282). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

20. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2001). A comparison of American and Canadian conceptualizations of competence to stand trial. In R. Roesch, R. R. Corrado, & R. J. Dempster (Eds.), Psychology in the courts: International advances in knowledge, pp. 121-132. London: Routledge.

21. Cox, D. N., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2000). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (pp. 238-269) (4th ed.). Toronto, ON: Harcourt Brace.

22. Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2000). Competency issues in civil and criminal law: A comparison of competency measures. In A. Czerederecka, T. Jaskiewicz, & J. Wojcikiewicz (Eds.), Forensic psychology and law: Traditional questions and new ideas (pp. 34-40). Krakow, Poland: Institute of Forensic Research Publishers.

23. Golding, S. L., Skeem, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (1999). The assessment of criminal responsibility: A historical approach to a current controversy. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp. 379-408). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

24. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., & Skeem, J. (1999). Defining and assessing competency to stand trial. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp. 327-349). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

25. Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., Zapf, P. A., Hart, S. D., & Otto, R. (1998). Jail and prison inmates. In A. S. Bellack and M. Hersen (Series Eds.) and N. N. Singh (Vol. Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology: Vol. 9. Application in diverse populationsI (pp. 85-104). New York: Elsevier.

26. Cox, D. N., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (1996). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (3rd ed.). Toronto, ON: Harcourt Brace.

Research

Research Grants

PSC-CUNY Research Grant (2004)
Title:
A Comparison of Competence-Related Abilities and Cognitive Abilities
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $4,320

Presidential Research Grant, John Jay College of Criminal Justice (2003-2004)
Title: A Program of Study on the Assessment of Criminal Competencies
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $7,000

PSC-CUNY Research Grant (2003)
Title:
A Comparison of the MacCAT-CA and the FIT for Making Determinations of Competency to Stand Trial
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $5,000

Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (2002)
Title:
An Investigation of the German Legal System with Respect to Incompetent Offenders
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $7,500

University of Alabama, Research Advisory Committee (2002)
Title:
An Investigation and Comparison of Legal Proceedings of Competency to Stand Trial in Germany, Canada, and the United States
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $5,000

University of Alabama, Research Advisory Committee (2000)
Title:
An Investigation of Four Competence-Related Abilities
Investigator: Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $5,000

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (1996-1999)
Title:
Assessing Fitness to Stand Trial: Studies on the Reliability and Validity of the FIT (Revised Edition)
Investigators: Ronald Roesch & Patricia A. Zapf
Amount: $66,000

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