Lauren R. Shapiro, Ph.D.

Lauren R. Shapiro, Ph.D.

Associate Professor
Phone number: 
212-237-8380
Room number and address: 
43.313 HAAREN HALL

Education

2009   M.S. in Criminal Justice (Law); Indiana State University

When does disparity mean discrimination? An examination of defendant race, juror race, and    race-stereotypical crimes on juridical    decisions.

1990   Ph.D. in Psychology (Cognitive-Development); Rutgers University of New Jersey

Developmental differences in children's ability to produce structurally coherent and linguistically cohesive personal narratives and stories.

1985   M.S. in Experimental Psychology; Ohio University

Family environment as a mediator in the maintenance of behavioral changes one year after a moral intervention program.

1983   B.A. in Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Buffalo, State University of New York

 

Bio

           Dr. Lauren R. Shapiro is an Associate Professor at the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management.  She has a Doctorate in Philosophy from Rutgers University, specializing in Cognitive Developmental Psychology, a Masters in Science from Indiana University in Criminal Justice, a Masters in Art from Ohio University in Experimental Psychology, and undergraduate degrees in both Early Childhood Education and in Psychology from University of Buffalo.  From 2008-2009, she served as an extern with the Honorable Ralph Erickson in the U.S. District Court of North Dakota, Fargo, and as an intern with the Fargo Police Department.  Dr. Shapiro has done pro-bono work consulting with officials in the police, sheriff, and district attorney departments and with psychologists, as well as in-service workshops for those who work with children, including child care and social service workers.

Dr. Shapiro has taught at a number of colleges and universities in 8 states on the East Coast, South, and Midwest in the fields of Psychology, Human Development, Criminal Justice, and Security. She taught Criminal Justice courses as full time faculty at King Graduate School of Monroe College for several years prior to joining the Department of Security, Fire, and Emeregency Mangement at John Jay College in the spring of 2015 as an Adjunct and as full-time faculty in the fall of 2015.  Dr. Shapiro teaches a variety of courses for the department relevant to the major, as well as to the cybercrime minor.

Dr. Shapiro's scholarship applies concepts in psychology and criminal justice to the areas of physical security, private investigation, and school safety and security.  In 2016, Dr. Shapiro co-published a book with Jones and Bartless entitled, Multidisciplinary investigation of child maltreatment, with Dr. Marie-Helen Maras. She is a co-editor with Dr. Maras of the Encylopedia of Security and Emergency Management, which covers multiple chapters ideal for students and new professionals (Online 2018-2020, Print version 2021).  Dr. Shapiro is currently writing a book entitled, Cyberpredators and their prey (exp. print 2021).  She has also published in a number of peer-reviewed academic journals, edited books and encyclopedias, online journals, and professional journals/magazines.

                                                                                    CRIMINAL JUSTICE EXPERIENCE 

        Extern                   

                 Honorable Ralph Erickson, U.S. District Court of North Dakota, Fargo, ND [April-May 2009].

DUTIES: Received training in using WestLaw on the computer; looked up precedents for ongoing drug trafficking cases; wrote report for case involving insurance; observed in court and in chambers; contributed to group meetings for new cases.

   Intern                 

                 Fargo Police Department, Fargo, ND [December 2008-March 2009].

          DUTIES: Received training in every area of the department including Records (entered records for incident reports on computer); Property/Evidence (learned how to enter evidence in records, place in bins, put on shelf); Forensics lab (reviewed current cases); Arson (reviewed current and past cases with Fire Dept. Arson Investigator); Investigations (read reports for robbery; printed requested records and search warrants for suspects; entered data on computer; reviewed cases of abuse, rape, burglary; observed interrogations); Child Advocacy Center Forensic Team (interview of 3-year-old abuse victim; tour of center; spoke to physician and interviewers); Dispatch/911 (learned the codes and responses, directing officers/fire fighters/ambulance to incidents called in); Training Center (learned how officers are given training in defensive tactics, firearms, emergency vehicle operation, and investigation); Traffic (went with officers in field); K-9 Unit and Patrol (went with officers into field, including for morning briefing, arrest, routine patrol, bank robbery, EMT calling in DOA, domestic dispute; felony warrant etc.); CHARISM (Crime Prevention Unit to reduce property crimes and theft plus Business Watch to help stores reduce shrinkage; accompanied officers to school to meet with parents to discuss online safety for children; Cultural Liaison Office to work with officers helping refugees acclimate to the area); Front Desk (assisted in answering questions, directing people to departments; registering sex offenders in new addresses; observed police officer job interviews); Civilian (animal control, parking violations, messenger duty); SRO (high school officer did safety talks, drug searches, etc. in the high school).  Also worked with City Prosecutor to learn the process for filing and prosecuting cases and observed in court.

CERTIFICATES

                First responder-Terrorism Awareness Program core, RCMP, Ottawa, Canada (2018).

                Custody Investigator, Fargo, ND (2008).

                Special Education Advocate, Topeka, KS (2005).

                Video production and editing course, Emporia State University, (1999).

                Court Appointed Special Advocate. Fort Lauderdale, FL (1996).

PRO-BONO CONSULTING

Clients received advice regarding children’s abilities to testify about their own abuse, currently and in the past, children’s developmental physical capacity, and criminal identification procedures.

                  Bronx District Attorney’s Office, Child Abuse/Sex Crimes Unit, Bronx, NY [August 2012 to present]        

                  Center of Change (Dr. Meriweather), Topeka, KS [2007-2008]   

                  Lyon County Sheriff’s Department [2000-2008]           

                  Emporia Police Department, Emporia, KS [2000-2008]          

PRO-BONO TRAINING WORKSHOPS

Shapiro, L.R. & Maras, M-H. (2011, October).  Forensic Interviewing – Effective Techniques and Legal Aspects. Administration for Children’s Services Children’s Center, Bronx, NY.

Maras, M-H & Shapiro, L. (2011, August).  Forensic Interviewing – Effective Techniques and Legal Aspects. Administration for Children’s Services Children’s Center, New York, NY.

Maras, M-H & Shapiro, L.R. (2010, November).  Children as Eyewitnesses: Descriptions and Identification Accuracy.  NYC Administration for Children’s Services, Bronx, NY. 

Maras, M-H. & Shapiro, L.R. (2010, September).  Forensic Interviewing.  NYC Administration for Children’s Services, Bronx, NY.

Shapiro, L.R. (2006, November). Tuning into infants.  In-service for Infant /Toddler Teachers conducted at Hope Street Academy, Topeka, KS, Nov.

Shapiro, L.R. (2002, January).  Effective Discipline: How to teach children.  Workshop conducted for Child Care Providers, Emporia State University.

Shapiro, L.R. (2001, November).  Effective Discipline: How to teach children.  Workshop conducted for Child Care Providers, Emporia State University.

Shapiro, L.R. (1999, March).  Behavior Modification and Discipline.  Workshop conducted for the single parents group, Emporia State University, March.

Shapiro, L.R. (1995, June).  Remembering Events: Classroom techniques for taking advantage of children’s knowledge.  Workshop conducted at Glenwood Elementary School, Chapel Hill, NC.

Shapiro, L.R. (1995, May).  Remembering Events: Classroom techniques for taking advantage of children’s knowledge.  Workshop conducted at Seawell Elementary School, Chapel Hill, NC.

PROFESSIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOPS

Shapiro, L. & Maras, M-H. (2015, December 4).  Forensic Interviewing and Investigations for Justice and Security Professionals.  Training given at the Center for Private Security and Safety, Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. 

Shapiro, L. & Maras, M-H. (2014, September 17).  Forensic Interviewing.  Training given at the Center for Private Security and Safety, Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. 

Shapiro, L.R. (2005, September).   How to bias eyewitness testimony (especially in children).  Workshop conducted at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

JJC Affiliations

Security Management Bachelors degree; Security Management Master's degree; Emergency Management Master's degree

Course Taught

Undergraduate Courses: SEC101 Introduction to Security; SEC217 Cybercrime Investigations; SEC270/CSCI270 Security of Computers and their Data; SEC307 Cyberpredators; SEC310 Emergency Planning; SEC320 Private Security: Trends and movements; SEC346 Retail and Commercial Security; FIS401 Seminar in Fire Protection Problems; SEC405 Seminar in Security Problems; HON 401 Honors Capstone Seminar: Research and the Theme of the Common Good. 

Graduate Courses: PMT715 Analytical Methods in Protection Management (16 weeks); SEC 715 Analytical Methods in Protection Management (8weeks); SEC 740 Safety and Security in the Built Environment (8 weeks).

Scholarly Work

Books

Shapiro, L.R. & Maras, M-H.  (2016).  Multidisciplinary investigation of child maltreatment.  MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shapiro, L.R. & Maras, M-H. (Editors). (2021).  Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer Publications.

Shapiro, L.R.  Cyberpredators and their prey. CRC Press. [in preparation]

Journal Articles

Shapiro, L.R. (in press).  Effects of thief stereotype on bystander recall, interpretation, and punishment for male and female juvenile thieves.  Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Shapiro, L.R. (2021).  Corporate liability of hotels: Criminal sanctions for online sex trafficking. Journal of Internet Law, 24(5), 3-10.

Shapiro, L.R.  (2020). Online child sexual abuse material: Prosecuting across jurisdictions. Journal of Internet Law, 24(3), 3-8.

Shapiro, L.R. (2020).  Online child sexual abuse material: Prosecuting across jurisdictions.  Journal of Internet Law, 24(3),3-8.

Shapiro, L.R., & Maras, M-H. (2019).  Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of ISIS cases in U.S. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Special Issue: Islamic States Online Activity and Responses 2014-2017, 42(1-2), 88-119. Doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1513684

Reprinted: Shapiro, L.R., & Maras, M-H. (2020).  Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of ISIS cases in U.S. In M. Conway and S. Macdonald (Eds.), Islamic States Online Activity and Responses. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group.  ISBN 9780367858650

Shapiro, L.R., & Brooks, E. (2018). Effects of cognitive schemas on children’s testimony for a simulated theft. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 57, 1-15. Doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2018.05.002

Shapiro, L.R., Maras, M-H., Velotti, L., Pickman, S., Wei, H-L, & Till, R. (2018).  Trojan horse risks in the maritime transportation sector. Journal of Transportation Security, 11 (3-4), 65-83. DOI.org 10.1007/s12198-018-0191-3

Maras, M-H., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2017). Child sex dolls and robots: More than just an uncanny valleyJournal of Internet Law, 21(6), 3-21.  ISSN: 10942904

Shapiro, L.R. (2009).  Eyewitness testimony for a simulated juvenile crime by male and female perpetrators with gender--role consistent or inconsistent characteristics.  Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30 (6), 649-666.

Shapiro, L.R. (2006).  The effects of question type and eyewitness temperament on accuracy and quantity of recall for a simulated misdemeanor crime.   Emporia State Research Studies, 43, 1-7; http://www.emporia.edu/esrs/vol43/vol43.htm.

Shapiro, L.R.  (2006).  Remembering September 11th: The role of retention interval and rehearsal on flashbulb and event memory.   Memory, 14, 129-145. DOI: 10.1080/09658210544000006

Shapiro, L.R.  & Purdy, T. (2005).  Suggestibility and source monitoring errors: Blame the interview style, interviewer consistency, and the child's personality.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 489-506. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1093

Shapiro, L.R., Blackford, C., & Chen, C-F. (2005).  Eyewitness memory for a simulated misdemeanor crime:  The role of age and temperament in suggestibility.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 267-289. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1089

Shapiro, L.R., & Hudson, J.A.  (2004).  Effects of internal and external supports on preschool children's event planning.  Journal of Applied Development Psychology, 25, 49-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2003.11.004

*Hendrickson, V., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2001). Cohesive reference devices in children’s personal narratives.  Journal of Psychological Inquiry, 6, 17-22.

Hudson, J.A., Shapiro, L.R., & Sosa, B.  (1995).  Planning in the Real World: Preschool children's scripts and plans for familiar events.  Child Development, 66, 984-998. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00917.x       

Shapiro, L.R. & Hudson, J.A.  (1991).  Tell me a make-believe story:  Coherence and cohesion in young children's picture-elicited narratives.  Developmental Psychology, 27, 960-974. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.6.960

Chapters in Edited Volumes

Gentile, A., & Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Security: Contract. In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer. Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_31-1 (First online: 19 March 2019)

Gentile, A., & Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Security: Proprietary. In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer. Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_32-1 (First online: 02 August 2019).

Gentile, A., & Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Security: Hybrid. In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer. Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_293-1 (First online: 29 December 2019).

Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Retail shrink: Shoplifting. In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer. Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_56-1 (First online: 12 November 2018)

Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Retail shrink: Employee theft. In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer. Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_235-1 (First Online: 31 January 2019)

Shapiro, L.R. (2019). Gender stereotypes and criminal offending. In F. P. Bernat & K. Frailing (Eds.), Encyclopedia of women and crime. Hoboken, NY: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-118-92979-7 (First online: 23 August 2019, DOI: 10.1002/9781118929803.ewac0227).

Shapiro, L.R. (2019). Memory and child abuse.  In F. P. Bernat & K. Frailing (Eds.), Encyclopedia of women and crime. Hoboken, NY: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-118-92979-7 (First online: 23 August 2019, DOI: 10.1002/9781118929803.ewac0347).

*Stamper, A., & Shapiro, L.R. (2021). Federal Emergency Management Agency.  In L.R. Shapiro and M-H. Maras (eds.), Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. Springer.  DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_68-1 (First online: 27 June 2019).

Ornstein, P.A., Shapiro, L.R., Clubb, P.A., Follmer, A., & Baker-Ward, L.  (1997).  The influence of prior knowledge on children’s memory for salient medical experiences (pp. 83-111).  In N.L. Stein, P.A. Ornstein, C.J. Brainerd, & B. Tversky (Eds.), Memory for everyday and emotional events.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hudson, J.A., Sosa, B., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1997).  Scripts and plans:  The development of children’s event knowledge and event planning.  In S.L. Friedman & E.K. Scholnick (Eds.), Why, how, and when do we plan?  The developmental psychology of planning (pp. 77-102).  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum.

Shapiro, L.R., & Hudson, J.A.  (1997).  Coherence and cohesion in children’s event narratives (pp. 23-48).  In J. Costerman & M. Fayol (Eds.), Processing interclausal relationships in the production and comprehension of text.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hudson, J.A. & Shapiro, L.R.  (1991).  From knowing to telling:  The development of children's scripts, stories, and personal narratives.  In A. McCabe & C. Peterson (Eds.), Developing narrative structure (pp. 89-136). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Professional Journal Contributions

Shapiro, L.R. Private security working in multi-tenant/use retail spaces: Learning the red flag indicators of human traffickingSecurity Management (online). [forthcoming]

Shapiro, L.R. (2021, February 2). Training security guards to identify sex trafficking victims. Security Management(online), https://www.asisonline.org/security-management-magazine/latest-news/online-exclusives/2021/training-security-guards-to-identify-sex-trafficking-victims/ [click to view]

Shapiro, L.R.  (2020, December 5).  5 steps to training LP practitioners to be better shoplifting observers.  Loss Prevention Magazine, Digital Channelhttps://losspreventionmedia.com/5-steps-to-training-lp-practitioners-to-be-better-shoplifting-observers/ [click to view]

Maras, M-H., Shapiro, L.R., Velotti, L., Pickman, S., Wei, H-L, & Till, R. (2018, April).  On a sea of risk.  Security Management, 62(4), 62-70. https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/On-a-Sea-of-Risk.aspx [click to view]

Maras, M-H. & Shapiro, L.R. (2018, January 24). ‘Shadow” trade in child sex dolls should be banned, say Profs.  The Crime Reporthttps://thecrimereport.org/2018/01/24/the-growing-danger-of-child-sex-dolls [click to view]

Shapiro, L.R., & Maras, M-H (2017, April). Stereotypes affect surveillance.  Security Management, 61(4), 44-49. https://www.asisonline.org/security-management-magazine/articles/2017/04/surveillance-and-stereotypes/[click to view]

Shapiro, L.R.  (2001, March).  No expert for cross-racial id: Less reliability a common belief.  Commentary in The Forensic Panel Letter (3 pp.).

Shapiro, L.R. (2000).   Cases in the headlines: Police Shootings, Community Controversy...Forensic Answers [Commentary on Weatherrred v State of Texas].  The Forensic Echo, June.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1998, August).  Deja View?  Photo bias and the eyewitness.  The Forensic Echo, 2(9), 4-5.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1998, December).  Two heads better than one.  The Forensic Echo, 3 (1), 21.

PEER-REVIEWED CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

*Douglas, A., & Shapiro, L.R (2019, May). An analysis of societal stereotypes of juvenile offenders. Undergraduate Research Day, John Jay College, NY, NY.

*Douglas, A., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2019, March). The Impact of Male Juvenile Offenders Stereotypes on Subsequent Hiring Decisions and Recidivism Expectations. Academy of Criminal Justice Science, Baltimore, Maryland.

Shapiro, L.R., & Alexandrou, A. (2019, March). Online Security: Protecting Adolescents and Young Adults from Exposure to Extremism and Criminal Victimization. In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), Preventing violent crime. Academy of Criminal Justice Science, Baltimore, Maryland.

Shapiro, L.R., & Maras-M-H (2017, November).  Warning: Ads selling sex with children. Global and Transnational Crimes Conference. Philadelphia, PA.

Shapiro, L.R., & Maras-M-H (2017, June).  Social media as a means for radicalizing women in the US. Terrorism and Social Media International Conference, Swansea, Wales.

Shapiro, L.R., & Maras-M-H (2017, March).  Advice to private security guards on detecting juvenile shoplifters.  In S.K. Shernock (Chair), Crime prevention programs and policies in security and crime prevention.  Academy of Criminal Justice Science, Kansas City, MO.

Shapiro, L.R. (2011, June).  Role of stereotypes in witness perception, interpretation, recall, and judgment for juvenile male and female thieves’ behaviors. Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, NYC.

*Poire, K. M., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2007, May).  Effects of criminal stereotypes on interpretation and recall.  Undergraduate Research Day, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS.

Shapiro, L.R.  (2007, July).  Role of eyewitness age and schemas on testimony for a juvenile crime by a male versus female perpetrator.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Lewiston, Maine.

Shapiro, L.R., & Brown, A.  (2007, April).  The role of criminal stereotypes on interpretation and recall of juvenile crime.  Research and Creativity Forum, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS.

*Arthur, A., Bigler, R.S., Shapiro, L.R., & Liben, L.S.  (2007, March).  Familial influences on children's gender attitudes.  Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.

*Poire, K. M., Brown, A., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2007, March).  Effects of criminal stereotypes on interpretation and recall. Great Plains Student Conference, Friends University, Wichita, KS.

*Sandberg, K., Just, J. D., Johansen, J., Shapiro, L. R., Hansen, T., & Polage, D.   (2006, June).  Emotions and flashbulb memory in young and mature Americans and Europeans for September 11, 2001.  Conference on Perspectives on Memory and Cognition, Aarhus, Denmark.

*Arthur, A.E., Bigler, R.S., Liben, L.S., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2006, April).  Feminist parents/sexist children:  Attitudinal inconsistency in parent-child dyads. Gender Development Research Conference, San Francisco.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Henry, C.  (2006, April). Even a bad assessment is better than no interview, but two bad assessments means trouble.  Conference on Human Development, Louisville, KY.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Henry, C.  (2005, Nov.).  The timing and number of suggestive interviews on children's eyewitness testimony.   Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Emporia, KS; also presented at the Emporia State University Undergraduate Research Day (2005, May).

Shapiro, L.R., Hansen, T., & Polage, D.  (2005, August).  International Study of Flashbulb and Event Memory of 9/11. In L. Shapiro (Chair), Memory.  European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Leiden.

*Shapiro, L.R., Russell, C., & Henry, C.  (2005, April).  The timing and number of suggestive Interviews on child eyewitness memory.  Society for Research and Child Development, Atlanta; also presented at the 2005 Research and Creativity Forum, Emporia State University (2005, April).

*Nashatizadeh, A., Wimbush, E., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2004, April).  New Yorkers tell their stories: The role of age and locality as moderators of flashbulb memory.  Southwestern Psychological Association, Texas.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Haugen, E.H.  (2004, March).  Remembering tragedy:  Flashbulb and event memory for the Columbia Shuttle disaster.  American Psychological-Law Society, Arizona.

*Shapiro, L.R., Haugen, E.H., Nashatizadeh, A., Wimbush, E., & Harrison, S.  (2003, Nov.).  Remembering tragedy:  Flashbulb memory for 9/11 by New Yorkers.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Wichita, KS.

*Shapiro, L.R., Haugen, E.H., Wimbush, E., & Harrison, S.  (2003, Nov.).  Remembering tragedy:  Flashbulb memory for the Columbia Shuttle disaster.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Wichita, KS.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Haugen, E.H.  (2003, July). The effect of time on flashbulb memory for September 11th.  In L. Shapiro (Chair), Flashbulb memories: Examining recall for tragedy. Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Haugen, E.M. (2003, July). The effects of group collaboration on eyewitness testimony and identification.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Palmer, C.L.  (2003, July).  A trip to the park: The role of emotion in children’s recall.  In L. Shapiro (Chair), The role of social and emotional factors on children’s eyewitness testimony.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Lewellen, L.  (2003, July).  That’s the wrong song:  Interviewer role and question type on children’s autobiographic memory.  In L. Shapiro (Chair), Social and emotional influences on autobiographic memory.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Aberdeen, Scotland.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Spatz, D.  (2003, April).  The role of socio-emotional factors and academic achievement on college retention of freshman.  Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa.

*Haugen, E. M. & Shapiro, L.R. (2002, April).  The effect of collaboration on criminal identification.  Faculty Research and Creativity, Emporia State University.

*Haugen, E., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2002, March). Is there a case for flashbulb memory: A study on September 11, 2001.  Great Plains Students’ Psychology Convention, Emporia, Kansas (First Place); Also presented April 2002 at the Faculty Research and Creativity, Emporia State University.

*Lewellen, L., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2002, March). Remember when?  Differences in children’s event memory as reported to familiar and unfamiliar interviewers.  Great Plains Students’ Psychology Convention, Emporia, Kansas; Also presented April 2002 at the Faculty Research and Creativity, Emporia State University.

*West, A., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2002, March).  To discuss or not to discuss, That is the Question.  Great Plains Students’ Psychology Convention, Emporia, Kansas; also presented March 2002 at the Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.

*Haugen, E., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2002, March). A case for flashbulb memory.  Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Hiatt, T.  (2002, March).  A Comparison of Photographic Line-up Procedures American Psychology-Law Society, Austin, Texas.   

*Shapiro, L.R., & West, A.  (2002, March).  Effect of Eyewitness Collaboration on Recall and Identification.  American Psychology-Law Society, Austin, Texas.

*Ridgway, C., Shapiro, L.R., & West, A.  (2001, Nov.).   Effect of Eyewitness Collaboration on Recall and Identification.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Baldwin, Kansas.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Purdy, T.L.  (2001, Oct.)  Implanting false memories in children.  Cognitive Development Society, Virginia Beach, VA; also presented April 2002 at the Faculty Research and Creativity, Emporia State University.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Waymire, A.R.  (2001, Oct.) Children’s knowledge for pediatric check-ups. Cognitive Development Society, Virginia Beach, VA.

*Shapiro, L.R., Spencer, A., & Brandt, C.  (2001, June). Criminal Identification and Eyewitness Testimony by Young Adults.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Kingston, Ontario.

*Hiatt, T., & Shapiro, L.R. (2001, June). How to pick a “perp.”: Investigation of photograph line-up procedures.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Kingston, Ontario.

*Stumbaugh, M., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2001, June). The effect of question type on the accuracy of recall.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Kingston, Ontario.

*Brown, S., Long, K., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2001, March). What effect does music have on recall for simple and complex tasks?  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), What affects memory?  Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.  Also presented Nov. 2000 at Nebraska Psychological Society and Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Kearney, Nebraska.

*Hiatt, T.A., and Shapiro, L.R. (2001, March).  Effect of interviewer on long-term recall for a birthday party.  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), What affects memory?   Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.  Also presented Nov. 2000 at Nebraska Psychological Society and Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Kearney, Nebraska.

*Purdy, T., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2001, March).  Effect of interviewer and interview questions on suggestibility in children’s eyewitness testimony.  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), What affects memory?   Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.  Also presented Nov. 2000 at Nebraska Psychological Society and Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Kearney, Nebraska.

*Smith, P., Dexter, S., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2001, March).  Stop Thief! Developmental differences in recall of a crime by a male or a female thief.  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), What affects memory?   Emporia State University Psychology Symposium, Emporia, Kansas.  Also presented Nov. 2000 at Nebraska Psychological Society and Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Kearney, Nebraska.

*Smith, D., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2000, Nov.). How does parental attachment status of adolescents relate to their parents’ attachment status as adolescents?  Nebraska Psychological Society and Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Kearney, Nebraska.

*Spencer, A., Brandt, C., & Shapiro, L.R.  (2000, March). Eyewitness Testimony and Criminal Identification.  Fourth Annual Emporia State University Student Psychology Symposium, Emporia, KS.

*Chen, C-F, & Shapiro, L.R.  (2000, April).  Misleading questions:  Developmental and temperamental differences in the retrieval of children’s delayed event memory.  Conference on Human Development, Memphis.

*Palmer, C., James, T., & Shapiro, L.R. (1999, Nov.).  Criminal identification and eyewitness testimony by adolescents and young adults.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Wichita, Kansas.

*Brooks, E., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1999, Aug.). Female Thief, Male Thief: Sex differences in an eyewitnessed event.  American Psychological Association, Boston.

*Blackford, C., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1999, July).  Implanting false memories:  The effect of age, temperament, and type of question in children’s eyewitness testimony.  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), Eyewitness testimony by children, adolescents, and young adults.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Colorado.

*Brooks, E., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1999, July).  How do gender stereotypes affect children’s testimony?  In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), Eyewitness testimony by children, adolescents, and young adults.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Colorado.

*Palmer, C., James, T., Bowe, M., & Shapiro, L.  (1999, July).  Eyewitness testimony and criminal identification by adolescents and young adults. In L.R. Shapiro (Chair), Eyewitness testimony by children, adolescents, and young adults.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Colorado.

*Shapiro, L.R., & Brooks, E. (1999, April).  When Boys Don’t Act “Right:”  Who Remembers?  Emporia State University Poster Exhibit, Emporia, KS.

*Blackford, C., & Shapiro, L.R   (1999, April).  Differences in memory recall utilizing forced choice and open-ended questionnaires.  Society for Research in Child Development, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

*Burress, J., James, T., & Shapiro, L.  (1999, March).  The Effect of Temperament on Suggestibility.  Great Plains Convention, Wichita, Kansas.

*Burress, J., Ditch, B., James, T., & Shapiro, L.  (1998, Nov.).  Temperament and the Effect of Suggestibility on Memory.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Emporia, Kansas.

*James, T., Bowe, M., Palmer, C., & Shapiro, L.  (1998, Nov.).  Gender role differences in identification and testimony.  Association for Psychological and Educational Research in Kansas, Emporia, Kansas.

*Brooks, E, & Shapiro, L.R.  (1998, May).  Eyewitness testimony: Effects of gender and gender related attitudes on children’s recall.   American Psychological Society, Washington, D.C.

*Hamrick, T., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1998, May).  Eyewitness testimony: Identifying the perpetrator in a successive photo lineup.  American Psychological Society, Washington, D.C.

*Shapiro, L.R., Blackford, C., Brooks, E., & Chen, C-F (1997, July). Remembering Jesse’s birthday party:  The effects of single and repeated interviews on recall of atypical features.  Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Toronto.

Shapiro, L.R. (1997, April).  The role of atypical features in updating knowledge schemas.   Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, D.C.

Shapiro, L.R. (1997, April).  Effects of context on narrative production.  In H. Waters (Chair),  Recent trends in narrative production.   Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, D.C.

Shapiro, L.R., Clubb, P., & Furtado, E.  (1995, March).  The relationship between act frequency estimates and children’s event knowledge.  Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis.

Shapiro, L.R., Clubb, P., & Ornstein, P.A.  (1994, April).  The effect of knowledge on children’s memory reports of their five-year-old check-ups.  Conference on Human Development, Pittsburgh.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1994, April).  Children’s ability to produce coherent and cohesive stories:  Photographs are no substitute for experience.   Conference on Human Development, Pittsburgh.

Shapiro, L. R. (1993, March).   From knowing to planning:  The construction of plans from novel scripts.    Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans.

Sosa, B., Hudson, J.A., & Shapiro, L.R.  (1992, April).  Planning in the real world: Preschool children's scripts and plans for familiar events.  Conference on Human Development, Atlanta.

Shapiro, L.R., & Hudson, J.A.  (1992, April).  From start to finish:  What does it take for preschoolers to construct plans from novel scripts.  Conference on Human Development, Atlanta.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1991, April).  Development in children's storytelling.  Eastern Psychological Association, New York.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1991, April).  The effect of photographs on children's use of linguistic reference devices in narratives.  Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle.

Shapiro, L.R. & Hudson, J.A.  (1990, June).  Holding it all together:  Cohesive devices in young children's stories.   Jean Piaget Society, Philadelphia.

Shapiro, L.R.  (1990, March).  Developmental changes in young children's ability to produce cohesive and coherent stories.    In J.A. Hudson (Chair), Evaluating structure in different narrative genres.    Conference on Human Development, Richmond, Virginia.

Shapiro, L.R. & Hudson, J.A. (1989, April). Coherence and cohesion in preschool children's picture-elicited narratives.  Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, Missouri.

Shapiro, L.R. & Strommen, E.F. (1989, April).  The relationship between young children's drawings and verbal descriptions of a common object.  Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, Missouri.

Shapiro, L.R. & Hudson, J.A. (1989, March).  Preschool children's picture-elicited narratives. Eastern Psychological Association, Boston.

*Student involvement

INVITED TALKS

Learning to teach online: Applying concepts through discussion forums (2019, January 24). Faculty Development Day, NYC, John Jay College.

Panel Discussion: Dealing with Trojan horses in the maritime sector (2016, November, with Maras, M-H, Till, R., Wei, H-L, Velotti, L., & Pickman, S.). Maritime Security Conference, State University of New York, Maritime College.

Private Security and Investigation (2010, July).  Monroe College, Bronx, N.Y.

The role of criminal and sex stereotypes on recall and interpretation of a juvenile crime (2007, September).  Presented to the Child Development and Family Science Department at North Dakota State University.

Stealing vs. Borrowing: The Role of Perpetrator Sex and Perpetrator Gender-Role Characteristics on Eyewitness Interpretation of a Juvenile Crime (2007, March).  Presented to the Psychology Dept. at Grand Valley State University.

Children as eyewitnesses (2005, September).  Presented to the Psychology Dept. at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Interview style is the key to accuracy in eyewitness testimony (2005, January).  Presented at Teachers’ College Faculty meeting, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.

False memories and eyewitness accounts: Can you believe your eyes? (2005, January). Co-presented with K. Weaver at ESU Sigma Xi meeting, JavaCat5, Emporia, Kansas.

Children as eyewitnesses: Interview style is the key to accuracy (2004, May).  Presented at the Initiation Ceremony for the ESU Chapter of Sigma.

Eyewitness testimony (1999, January). Presented at the Teachers’ College Faculty Meeting, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.

Factors Affecting Eyewitness Testimony (1999, October). Presented to the Carolina Consortium on Human Development, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Remembering Jesse’s Birthday Party:  The effect of atypical features on children’s event memory (1997, April). Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Autobiographical Memory (1996, June).  Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, May; Also at the Psychology Colloquium, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.

Role of knowledge in event memory.  Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Pennsylvania, May 1996.

Development of event memory (1996, April).  Presented at the Human Development Seminar, Pennsylvania State University, Shenango Valley, Pennsylvania.

Relationship between event knowledge and typicality ratings for birthday parties (1996, March).  Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

The role of knowledge in remembering: Implications for teacher (1995, May).  Presented at the Graduate Seminar in Models of Teaching, Oglethorpe University.

The relationship between knowledge and memory in young children (1995, February).  Presented at the Child Clinical Psychology Colloquium, Joseph J. Peters Institute.

Everything you wanted to say about violence**(but didn’t get a chance to during the semester).  Presented with D. Mekos (1994, April). Advanced Proseminar of the Carolina Consortium on Human Development.

The development of event planning in young children (1994, February).  Presented at the Developmental Psychology Colloquium, North Carolina State University.

The moral of the story is...children bake up better stories after burning cookies (1993, September).  Presented at the Developmental Psychology Colloquium, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Self-narrative as personal history (1993, November).   Discussion leader for the Carolina Consortium on Human Development Fellows Meeting

The self:  Review and looking ahead (1993, November).   Presented with M-C. Leung, J. Mahoney, D. Mekos, M. Shannighan, and H-L. Xie at the Advanced Proseminar of the Carolina Consortium on Human Development.

Cultural constraints on Women's self-image (1993, October). Discussion leader for the Carolina Consortium on Human Development Fellows Meeting.

Adolescent Cognitive Developmental Changes (1993, April). Guest Lecture Presented to the Honors Seminar in Cognitive Development, S.U.N.Y. at Fredonia.

Narrative Production (1993, April).  Presented to the Psychology Department, S.U.N.Y.  at Fredonia, NY.

Narrative Production (1993, April).  Presented to the Psychology Department, University of Southern Alabama.

From Knowing to Planning:  Learning How to Plan in the Preschool Years (1992, May).  Presented to the Psychology Department, Clemson University.

The Effect of Causal Links, Experience, and Cuing on the Development of Plans From General Event Knowledge (1992, March). Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, Indiana University at South Bend.

The Effect of Causal Links, Experience, and Cuing on the Development of Plans From General Event Knowledge (1992, March). Presented at the Psychology Colloquium, Wesleyan University.

From Knowing to Telling:  Narrative Development in Children (1992, March).  Guest Lecture presented to Child Counseling and Psychopathology Seminar, University of Maine at Farmington.

Planning in the Preschool Years:  Even the Best Laid Plans Go Awry (1992, March). Presented to the Psychology Colloquium, University of Maine at Farmington.

Planning in the Preschool Years:  Even the Best Laid Plans Go Awry (1992, January). Presented to the Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

What's Helpful, What's Not, and When:  How Context Affects Narrative Production in Children (1991, May). Presented to the Educational Psychology Colloquium, Fordham University.

Children's Story Production (1991, March). Presented to the Psychology Department, Manhattanville College, March 1991.

Children's Story Production (1990, November). Presented to the Day Care Seminar, Rutgers University, November, 1990.

Developmental Differences in Children's Ability to Produce Narratives (1990 August).  Presented to the Psychology Department, Rutgers University.

 

 

 

 

 

                                          

Research Summary

Scholarship since 2015 has been geared towards addressing security strategies currently are used by practitioners.  As my scholarly work is relevant to both practitioners and researchers, I publish in both professional security journals and magazines, to increase the likelihood that those in the field would read and use my work, and in peer-reviewed, academic journals.

Direction of my recent scholarship

Physical security.  Security managers are tasked with protecting assets (e.g., information, property, people) and must be prepared to handle a variety of emergency situations (e.g., flash flood, building collapse, fire, active shooter) that threaten both safety and security of those assets.  Even a precursory examination of my research, presentations, and scholarship for the past four years shows a focus on security risks associated with criminals (i.e., thieves, terrorists) who pose physical, personnel, and cyber threats against employees at their workplace, retailers, borders, schools, and maritime industry.  I apply an interdisciplinary perspective that combines psychology, criminal justice, and security to understand prevention and detection strategies within the field of private security, particularly as it relates to juvenile and adult criminals and victims.  

  • My primary work focuses on understanding how extralegal factors (i.e., sex, race, gender characteristics) of juvenile offenders and criminal stereotypes affect the cognitive processes used in crime prevention strategies, determining whether juveniles committed a crime, and decisions regarding offender consequences. Drawing on my psychology and criminal justice expertise, I have examined how criminal stereotypes influence the perception, interpretation, recall, and decisions made by private (and public) security personnel.
  • A second specialty within physical security focuses on potential and real threats involving radicalized female U.S. citizens who have joined extremist groups and committed terrorist acts. It is important the security personnel understand the roles adolescent girls and women play in terrorist organizations that threaten their task of asset protection.  For example, girls/women in pairs or as part of a heterosexual couple have created bombs and engaged in active shooter scenarios in public spaces and in office buildings. Most importantly, we need to understand their agency in enacting and promoting violent acts.  By applying psychological theory, we explained not only the acquisition of extremist ideas, but also a potential strategy to deradicalize these beliefs. My research provided insight into how adolescent girls and young women are initially exposed to radical ideas through various online platforms and are spread through apps and social media; hence, this research is tied to school safety/security in terms of prevention strategies. It is also relevant to private security personnel who are involved in physical security for prisons where these women may be incarcerated.
  • A third specialty within physical security has been in understanding risks to the maritime sector. In particular, my departmental colleagues and I have reviewed potential physical, personnel, and cyber security threats plus natural and man-made hazards that security and emergency managers in various organizations (e.g., shippers, mariners, port employees) should consider to protect the maritime transportation system. 
  • A fourth area focuses on ecurity risks and issues related to importing of child sex dolls/robots, child sexual abuse material, and trafficking of child and adult victims is another focus of mine.  These topics, also relevant to private investigation (e.g., pursuit of missing/abused children, investigation), are important to the private sector in terms of subjecting corporations to criminal and civil liabilities.
  •  

Private investigation. Private investigators play multiple roles in private security, depending on who is hiring them (e.g., private citizens, life and health insurance companies, lawyers, courts). As such, they must become experts in proper interview procedures relevant to gathering evidence of crimes, factors affecting recall of personal experiences, preformed beliefs affecting interpretation, etc. This work can help private investigators interview children and adults, as well as guide their investigations in child recovery/custody, criminal, cybercrimes, kidnapping, negligence, child sexual assault, murder, etc.

School Safety and Security.  Drawing on my expertise in child cognitive development, I have focused my research on understanding how youth’s early exposure online using various social media platforms makes them victims (e.g., sex trafficking, cyberbullying) and contributes to their radicalization (e.g., terrorists).  First, I am interested in what types of adult situations early exposure to social media and the internet that youth experience and whether they were taught or have learned how to be safe while online. Second, I want to advise school security personnel on how students' use of the internet subjects them to various dangers and the most appropriate security strategies they could implement to protect students.

Area of Expertise

Most requested topics by media

Criminal Justice / Crime Prevention & Reduction
Cybersecurity
Human Trafficking
Juvenile Justice
Memory, Eyewitness ID & Interrogation / False Confessions
Terrorism & Violent Extremism
Women / Gender Justice

Faculty Expertise: topics/keywords

Cognitive developmental psychology; cybercrime and cyberpredators; sex and labor trafficking; private-public sector criminal liability;  juvenile theft/shoplifting; terrorism; juvenile criminal stereotypes.

In The Media

Podcast/Radio

  • Upcoming podcast (May 21, 2021). Training security guards in multi-use retail/commercial spaces (mall) to identify labor and sex trafficking victims. Security Guy TV, Chuck Harold.
  • Shapiro, L.R. (2003, February). Flashbulb memories for 9/11.  KVOE Radio, Emporia, KS.  Live interview discussing what people remember about disasters, particularly 9/11 but also Columbia shuttle which occurred days before the interview.

TV/YouTube

  • Maras, M-H. and Shapiro, L.R. Interview by Russo, M.  (aired 2018, April 27).  Social media’s dirty secret. I-Team, NBC 11 pm nightly news.  Live interview discussing the need to extend proposed CREEPER legislation to close our ports.
  • I was interviewed February 27, 2020 by reporter Bill Spadea on Chasing News (WOR—Channel 9 local news show) who was covering the arrest of a Queens school teacher for sexually abusing an autistic child and I was asked to discuss reasons that another teacher would have filmed the assault prior to reporting it to the principal.  Available at:  http://archive.tveyes.com/18120/3632397-40853/374ddb3f-3429-4a26-8907-52f93bfcaa97/WNYW_02-28-2020_01.03.19.mp4
  • I was interviewed by Matthew Scott, a reporter with the Magnusson Institute’s Digital Privacy News (https://digitalprivacy.news/) on April 18, 2020.  We discussed child sexual exploitation laws; vulnerability of children to become victims of child pornography; perpetual victimization when sexually explicit materials depicting children are shared online; obligations of technology companies and platforms; and violation of victims’ privacy.
  • Shapiro, L.R. and Haugen, E. (2003, February). Flashbulb memories for 9/11.  NBC Morning Show (Topeka, KS Channel 27).  Live interview discussing what people remember about 9/11 based on our research.

Print/Online

Physical security. The following interviews focused on physical security issues, including theft and terrorism.

 

Private InvestigationI have provided information regarding proper interview procedures relevant to gathering evidence for a crime and factors that impact children’s and adults’ recall of personal and witnessed experiences gathering evidence for a crime and factors that impact children’s and adults’ recall of personal and witnessed experiences.

  • I was interviewed by Eileen Grench regarding interviewing juvenile suspects for felony crimes resulting in the death of the victim.
  • I was interviewed by Beth Harpaz for SUM about my research with Elizabeth Brooks on child witnesses and the role of stereotypes in affecting testimony.
  • Reports summarized Applied Developmental Psychology study results. Psychology & Psychiatry Journal (Sept 22, 2018): p. 71 NewsRX  LLC Http://www.newsrx.com.ezlib.jjay.cuny.edu (7/19/2019).
  • I was interviewed by the Emporia State University newspaper regarding children’s and adult’s ability to remember experiences.
    • FLASHBULB MEMORIES: SEPT 11 LEAVES LASTING IMPACT, The Emporia State University Bulletin (2003, February)
    • EYEWITNESS RESEARCH FOCUSES ON CHILDREN, The Emporia State University Bulletin, (2002, September).
  • I was interviewed by a Forensic group who advises criminal justice professionals regarding problems in identifying suspects and police shootings in NYC.
    • CASES IN THE HEADLINES: Police Shootings, Community Controversy...Forensic Answers, The Forensic Panel Letter (2000, June).

 

School safety and security. I was interviewed regarding sexual crimes committed against children on school property or vis-à-vis internet, as well as advise for parents regarding emotional wellbeing of  leaving children with daycare providers.

  • I was interviewed by Stephanie Fairyington for an August 13, 2019 article that appeared in the New York Times Parenting section on advice for parents and daycare workers. Accessed at: https://parenting.nytimes.com/work-money/day-care-rules?module=editors-picks&action=click&region=1 (8/13/19).
  • I was interviewed by the Emporia State University paper regarding my knowledge for child development.  The article was entitled, TWIN TALK, published in The Emporia State University Bulletin (2000, September).