I.X. Malki, PhD, studied at Oxford as a Marshall Scholar. His research focuses on economically-defined minorities in twentieth-century colonial and postcolonial Africa, with special reference to “stranger” populations. He is interested in questions of citizenship, indigeneity, and the political integration of "strangers" in African and Middle Eastern societies. Malki's studies have taken him to archives and specialist libraries through North America, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. He has also conducted field work in West Africa and the Middle East. He teaches introductory and advanced African history with a focus on imperialism and nationalism.